Market Segment Watch: Second-life and recycling of electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries


A market analysis highlighting the key takeaways on Second-life applications and recycling of li-ion batteries from electric vehicles.



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Table of contents

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Executive summary (2)

Table of figures (6)

Introduction (7)

Production of lithium-ion batteries – increase in volume (7)

EV uptake and the demand for energetically dense batteries (7)

Chemistries of lithium-ion batteries (9)

Economic and environmental concerns for “end of life” EV batteries (15)

Lifetime of lithium-ion batteries in EVs (17)

Recycling of lithium-ion batteries (18)

Policy concerning recycling (19)

Metals of interest (21)

Material Volumes (26)

Methods of recycling lithium-ion batteries (28)

Economics of battery recycling (32)

Recycling Companies and Actors (36)

Concerns with collection, transportation, and hoarding (37)

Second-life applications (38)

Rationale for second-life applications (40)

Current methods and obstacles (41)

Pricing and availability (45)

Market potential for EV second-life batteries (45)

Environmental impacts of second-life battery projects (48)

Current and future projects concerning second-life applications (50)

Conclusions (58)